# unipotent and nilpotent classes in simple algebraic groups and lie algebras

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## Unipotent And Nilpotent Classes In Simple Algebraic Groups And Lie Algebras

**Author :**Martin W. Liebeck

**ISBN :**9780821869208

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**27. 4 MB

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This book concerns the theory of unipotent elements in simple algebraic groups over algebraically closed or finite fields, and nilpotent elements in the corresponding simple Lie algebras. These topics have been an important area of study for decades, with applications to representation theory, character theory, the subgroup structure of algebraic groups and finite groups, and the classification of the finite simple groups. The main focus is on obtaining full information on class representatives and centralizers of unipotent and nilpotent elements. Although there is a substantial literature on this topic, this book is the first single source where such information is presented completely in all characteristics. In addition, many of the results are new--for example, those concerning centralizers of nilpotent elements in small characteristics. Indeed, the whole approach, while using some ideas from the literature, is novel, and yields many new general and specific facts concerning the structure and embeddings of centralizers.

## The Octagonal Pets

**Author :**Richard Evan Schwartz

**ISBN :**9781470415228

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**71. 21 MB

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A polytope exchange transformation is a (discontinuous) map from a polytope to itself that is a translation wherever it is defined. The 1-dimensional examples, interval exchange transformations, have been studied fruitfully for many years and have deep connections to other areas of mathematics, such as Teichmüller theory. This book introduces a general method for constructing polytope exchange transformations in higher dimensions and then studies the simplest example of the construction in detail. The simplest case is a 1-parameter family of polygon exchange transformations that turns out to be closely related to outer billiards on semi-regular octagons. The 1-parameter family admits a complete renormalization scheme, and this structure allows for a fairly complete analysis both of the system and of outer billiards on semi-regular octagons. The material in this book was discovered through computer experimentation. On the other hand, the proofs are traditional, except for a few rigorous computer-assisted calculations.

## Maximum Principles And Sharp Constants For Solutions Of Elliptic And Parabolic Systems

**Author :**Gershon Kresin

**ISBN :**9780821889817

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**89. 69 MB

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The main goal of this book is to present results pertaining to various versions of the maximum principle for elliptic and parabolic systems of arbitrary order. In particular, the authors present necessary and sufficient conditions for validity of the classical maximum modulus principles for systems of second order and obtain sharp constants in inequalities of Miranda-Agmon type and in many other inequalities of a similar nature. Somewhat related to this topic are explicit formulas for the norms and the essential norms of boundary integral operators. The proofs are based on a unified approach using, on one hand, representations of the norms of matrix-valued integral operators whose target spaces are linear and finite dimensional, and, on the other hand, on solving certain finite dimensional optimization problems. This book reflects results obtained by the authors, and can be useful to research mathematicians and graduate students interested in partial differential equations.

## Functional Inequalities New Perspectives And New Applications

**Author :**Nassif Ghoussoub

**ISBN :**9780821891520

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**80. 20 MB

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"The book describes how functional inequalities are often manifestations of natural mathematical structures and physical phenomena, and how a few general principles validate large classes of analytic/geometric inequalities, old and new. This point of view leads to "systematic" approaches for proving the most basic inequalities, but also for improving them, and for devising new ones--sometimes at will and often on demand. These general principles also offer novel ways for estimating best constants and for deciding whether these are attained in appropriate function spaces. As such, improvements of Hardy and Hardy-Rellich type inequalities involving radially symmetric weights are variational manifestations of Sturm's theory on the oscillatory behavior of certain ordinary differential equations. On the other hand, most geometric inequalities, including those of Sobolev and Log-Sobolev type, are simply expressions of the convexity of certain free energy functionals along the geodesics on the Wasserstein manifold of probability measures equipped with the optimal mass transport metric. Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg and Hardy-Rellich-Sobolev type inequalities are then obtained by interpolating the above two classes of inequalities via the classical ones of Hölder. The subtle Moser-Onofri-Aubin inequalities on the two-dimensional sphere are connected to Liouville type theorems for planar mean field equations."--Publisher's website.

## Classification And Identification Of Lie Algebras

**Author :**Libor Šnobl

**ISBN :**9780821843550

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**62. 55 MB

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The purpose of this book is to serve as a tool for researchers and practitioners who apply Lie algebras and Lie groups to solve problems arising in science and engineering. The authors address the problem of expressing a Lie algebra obtained in some arbitrary basis in a more suitable basis in which all essential features of the Lie algebra are directly visible. This includes algorithms accomplishing decomposition into a direct sum, identification of the radical and the Levi decomposition, and the computation of the nilradical and of the Casimir invariants. Examples are given for each algorithm. For low-dimensional Lie algebras this makes it possible to identify the given Lie algebra completely. The authors provide a representative list of all Lie algebras of dimension less or equal to 6 together with their important properties, including their Casimir invariants. The list is ordered in a way to make identification easy, using only basis independent properties of the Lie algebras. They also describe certain classes of nilpotent and solvable Lie algebras of arbitrary finite dimensions for which complete or partial classification exists and discuss in detail their construction and properties. The book is based on material that was previously dispersed in journal articles, many of them written by one or both of the authors together with their collaborators. The reader of this book should be familiar with Lie algebra theory at an introductory level. Titles in this series are co-published with the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques.

## Gradings On Simple Lie Algebras

**Author :**Alberto Elduque

**ISBN :**9780821898468

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**43. 38 MB

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Gradings are ubiquitous in the theory of Lie algebras, from the root space decomposition of a complex semisimple Lie algebra relative to a Cartan subalgebra to the beautiful Dempwolff decomposition of $E_8$ as a direct sum of thirty-one Cartan subalgebras. This monograph is a self-contained exposition of the classification of gradings by arbitrary groups on classical simple Lie algebras over algebraically closed fields of characteristic not equal to 2 as well as on some nonclassical simple Lie algebras in positive characteristic. Other important algebras also enter the stage: matrix algebras, the octonions, and the Albert algebra. Most of the presented results are recent and have not yet appeared in book form. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate students or as a reference for researchers in Lie theory and neighboring areas.

## Conjugacy Classes In Semisimple Algebraic Groups

**Author :**James E. Humphreys

**ISBN :**9780821852767

**Genre :**Mathematics

**File Size :**67. 60 MB

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The book provides a useful exposition of results on the structure of semisimple algebraic groups over an arbitrary algebraically closed field. After the fundamental work of Borel and Chevalley in the 1950s and 1960s, further results were obtained over the next thirty years on conjugacy classes and centralizers of elements of such groups. A reader-friendly volume which will be very useful to those wishing to know more about the structure of algebraic groups ... contains both a straightforward guide to the simpler ideas in the subject, and also a fascinating glimpse into some of the more abstruse areas which are the subject of current investigation. --Bulletin of the LMS