the soviet biological weapons program

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The Soviet Biological Weapons Program

Author : Milton Leitenberg
ISBN : 9780674065260
Genre : History
File Size : 54. 49 MB
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This is the first attempt to understand the full scope of the USSR’s offensive biological weapons research, from inception in the 1920s. Gorbachev tried to end the program, but the U.S. and U.K. never obtained clear evidence that he succeeded, raising the question whether the means for waging biological warfare could be present in Russia today.

The Soviet Biological Weapons Program

Author : Milton Leitenberg
ISBN : 9780674070233
Genre : History
File Size : 20. 77 MB
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This is the first attempt to understand the full scope of the USSR’s offensive biological weapons research, from inception in the 1920s. Gorbachev tried to end the program, but the U.S. and U.K. never obtained clear evidence that he succeeded, raising the question whether the means for waging biological warfare could be present in Russia today.

The 1971 Smallpox Epidemic In Aralsk Kazakhstan And The Soviet Biological Warfare Program

Author : Jonathan B. Tucker
ISBN : UCSD:31822031513609
Genre : History
File Size : 25. 97 MB
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The Soviet Biological Weapons Program And Its Legacy In Today S Russia

Author : Raymond A. Zilinskas
ISBN : 154291745X
Genre :
File Size : 23. 93 MB
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In its first Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Case Study, the Center for the Study of Weapons of Mass Destruction (CSWMD) at the National Defense University examined President Richard M. Nixon's decision, on November 25, 1969, to terminate the U.S. offensive biological weapons program. This occasional paper seeks to explain why the Soviet government, at approximately the same time, decided to do essentially the opposite, namely, to establish a large biological warfare (BW) program that would be driven by newly discovered and powerful biotechnologies. By introducing the innovation of recombinant DNA technology - commonly referred to as genetic engineering - the Soviets were attempting to create bacterial and viral strains that were more useful for military purposes than were strains found in nature. In historical terms, the Soviet BW program had two so-called "generations," defined as distinct periods of time during which types of weapons were developed from earlier types. The first generation of the Soviet BW program commenced about 1928 and was based on naturally occurring pathogens that had caused devastating epidemics during World War I and the subsequent Russian Civil War. The second generation began approximately in 1972 when the decision was made at the highest political level to institute a research and development (R&D) system that utilized newly discovered techniques of genetic engineering to create novel or enhanced bacterial and viral strains that were better adapted for BW purposes than strains found in nature. President Boris Yeltsin ordered the cessation of the offensive BW program some months after the Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991 and in 1992 publically stated that it had conducted an offensive BW program in violation of the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. However, after Vladimir Putin was elected president, high-level Russian officials have lied about the Soviet BW program, stating that it was strictly a defensive program that had not broken international law. As is discussed later in this paper, elements of the Soviet offensive BW program continue in Russia and may provide the basis for a third-generation BW program supported by the current leadership. The first section of this paper describes the Soviet BW program's first generation, including its establishment, work plan and operations, and accomplishments. The second section focuses on "establishing the conditions" for the Soviet decision that was made sometime during 1969-1971 to establish and operate the second generation BW program. Conditions that are considered include the geopolitical challenges as perceived by the Soviet government, the decision making process for military acquisitions, and the inferior state of the biosciences in the Soviet Union at that time, which stimulated Soviet bioscientists to "play the military card" in order to introduce genetic engineering into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics' (USSR's) bioscience establishment. The final section has two sub-sections. The first summarizes the key factors that drove Soviet decisionmaking in the early 1970s to institute a huge offensive BW program. The second informs readers that even before Vladimir Putin was elected president for the second time, he openly stated that new weapons were to be developed using high technologies including "genetics." Based on this promise, and considering the secrecy that still keeps the military biological institutes and anti-plague institutes closed to outsiders, the paper discusses the possibility that the Putin administration may institute a third generation BW program. The appendix consists of a short biography of the Soviet general Yefim Ivanovich Smirnov who was for many years in charge of the Soviet BW program.

The Soviet Biological Weapons Program And Its Legacy In Today S Russia Innovation Using Recombinant Dna Technology And Genetic Engineering The Biopreparat Bw Program Biography Of Smirnov

Author : U. S. Military
ISBN : 1520440162
Genre :
File Size : 80. 15 MB
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President Richard M. Nixon's November 25, 1969, terminated the U.S. offensive biological weapons program on November 25, 1969. This paper seeks to explain why the Soviet government, at approximately the same time, decided to do essentially the opposite, namely, to establish a large biological warfare (BW) program that would be driven by newly discovered and powerful biotechnologies. By introducing the innovation of recombinant DNA technology--commonly referred to as genetic engineering--the Soviets were attempting to create bacterial and viral strains that were more useful for military purposes than were strains found in nature.Nixon's decision was widely publicized and documents revealing the reasons behind it are, in the main, available to the public in the National Archives, the Nixon Presidential Library in San Clemente, California, and publications written by members of the Nixon administration. In sharp contrast, the Soviet decision was highly secret at the time and remains so to this day. All contemporary documents pertaining to the Soviet offensive BW program remain classified and none of the military officers and officials who operated it has spoken or written about it except to deny that it existed or to belie its offensive intent.The information that has become available about the program has been divulged by scientists and administrators who previously worked in the civilian component of the Soviet BW program, called Biopreparat. Some of them had defected to Western countries and there told their stories, while others chose to remain in Russia after the Soviet Union dissolved in December 1991 and later divulged details of their past secret activities in their own publications, or in broadcasts or print interviews. However, Biopreparat employees, even those who held managerial positions, did not have sufficiently high clearances to be informed about high-level BW-related decisionmaking. Decisions such as those that instituted what in effect was a new BW program, and ordered the Soviet Ministry of Defense (MOD) to develop strategies and tactics for the use of biological weapons, were made at the highest levels by members of the Politburo and Central Committee of the Communist Party (CCCP) and the MOD's General Staff (GS).

Weapons Of The Soviet Union

Author : Books Llc
ISBN : 1157158137
Genre : History
File Size : 78. 59 MB
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Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 169. Chapters: Aircraft guns of the Soviet Union/CIS, Anti-aircraft weapons of Russia, Anti-aircraft weapons of the Soviet Union, Artillery of the Soviet Union, Cold War weapons of the Soviet Union, Grenades of the Soviet Union, Guided missiles of the Soviet Union, Kalashnikov derivatives, Machine guns of the Soviet Union, World War II weapons of the Soviet Union, AK-47, Tsar Bomba, IMI Galil, Katyusha rocket launcher, AK-74, ZSU-57-2, Comparison of the AK-47 and M16, ZSU-23-4, SKS, Dragunov sniper rifle, 152 mm gun M1935, Type 56 assault rifle, Makarov pistol, Soviet biological weapons program, 130 mm/50 B13 Pattern 1936, RPK, Ghost rockets, Novichok agent, FN FNC, PK machine gun, AK-630, DShK, RPD, Zastava M70, Zastava M76, S-5 rocket, KPV heavy machine gun, Pistol Mitralier model 1963/1965, 85 mm divisional gun D-44, PMN mine, R4 assault rifle, BM-30 Smerch, Rk 95 Tp, Degtyaryov machine gun, Kbk wz. 1988 Tantal, Russian 12 inch 40 caliber naval gun, APS amphibious rifle, OC-14-4A, VA-111 Shkval, AMD 65, Z 2000, 2A28 Grom, RBU-6000, Kbs wz. 1996 Beryl, 30 mm automatic cannon 2A42, Zastava M21, Vepr, Rk 62, Metel Anti-Ship Complex, Volkov-Yartsev VYa-23, AK-107, AGS-17, GP-25, Rikhter R-23, AK-103, Valmet M76, 130 mm towed field gun M1954, NSV machine gun, Stechkin APS, Kbk wz. 1996 Mini-Beryl, Kashtan CIWS, SPP-1 underwater pistol, WASR series rifles, S-8 rocket, Nudelman-Rikhter NR-30, 152 mm gun 2A36, Skbk wz. 1989 Onyks, RGD-5, Afanasev Makarov AM-23, Designations of Russian towed artillery, 9K52 Luna-M, 76 mm divisional gun M1902, SPG-9, ShVAK cannon, S-13 rocket, Maxim-Tokarev, BM-27 Uragan, 130 mm/55 B7 Pattern 1913, Afanasev A-12.7, ShKAS machine gun, Pu c Automat model 1986, Monkey model, Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-23, AEK-971, M-11 Shtorm, AK-101, Obukhovskii 12"/52 Pattern 1907 gun, AK-230, Gryazev-Shipunov GSh-6-30, Sp...

Biohazard

Author : Ken Alibek
ISBN : 9781407010724
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 45. 74 MB
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'We thought we had lived through the terror of a nuclear war, but something far more ominous was brewing in the Soviet Union - a biological Armageddon from which no one would escape. Dr Alibek has emerged from the world's deadliest labs to tell a story that is as important as it is chilling. Sometimes the truth is far worse than fiction. No one can afford not to read this book.' Robin Cook 'As the top scientist in the Soviet Union's biowarfare program and the inventor of the world's most powerful anthrax, Dr Ken Alibek has stunned the highest levels of the U.S. government with his revelations. Now, in a calm, compelling, utterly convincing voice, he tells the world what he knows. Modern biology is producing weapons that in killing power may exceed the hydrogen bomb. Ken Alibek describes them with the intimate knowledge of a top weaponeer.' Richard Preston, author of The Hot Zone

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