the league of nations the controversial history of the failed organization that preceded the united nations

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The League Of Nations

Author : Charles River Editors
ISBN : 153534461X
Genre :
File Size : 22. 34 MB
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*Includes pictures *Includes accounts of members of the League *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading "The program of the world's peace, therefore, is our program; and that program, the only possible program, as we see it, is this: 1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view." - President Woodrow Wilson "I have loved but one flag and I can not share that devotion and give affection to the mongrel banner invented for a league." - Henry Cabot Lodge The United Nations is one of the most famous bodies in the world, and its predecessor, the League of Nations, might be equally notorious. In fact, President Woodrow Wilson's pet project was controversial from nearly the minute it was conceived. At the end of World War I, Wilson's pleas at the Paris Peace Conference relied on his Fourteen Points, which included the establishment of a League of Nations, but while his points were mostly popular amongst Americans and Europeans alike, leaders at the Peace Conference largely discarded them and favored different approaches. British leaders saw their singular aim as the maintenance of British colonial possessions. France, meanwhile, only wanted to ensure that Germany was weakened and unable to wage war again, and it too had colonial interests abroad that it hoped to maintain. Britain and France thus saw eye-to-eye, with both wanting a weaker Germany and both wanting to maintain their colonies. Wilson, however, wanted both countries to rid themselves of their colonies, and he wanted Germany to maintain its self-determination and right to self-defense. Wilson totally opposed the "war guilt" clause, which blamed the war on Germany. Wilson mostly found himself shut out, but Britain and France did not want American contributions to the war to go totally unappreciated, if only out of fear that the U.S. might turn towards improving their relations with Germany in response. Thus, to appease Wilson and the Americans, France and Britain consented to the creation of a League of Nations. However, even though his participation in the crafting of the Treaty of Versailles earned him a Nobel Prize that year, Wilson soon learned to his consternation that diplomacy with Congress would go no better than his diplomacy with European leaders. The only major provision that Wilson achieved in Europe, the League of Nations, was the most controversial in the United States. Both aisles of Congress had qualms with the idea, believing it violated the Constitution by giving power over self-defense to an international body. Other interests in the United States, especially Irish-Americans, had now totally turned against Wilson. The President's interest in national self-determination extended to many European countries, including Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Belgium, but it excluded one critical country: Ireland, a country currently embroiled in a revolution against Great Britain. Worse, Irish-Americans thought the League of Nations would harden Anglo control of global institutions. Simply put, Wilson returned home to find many Americans weren't buying the League of Nations. While the Senate was able to build a slim majority in favor of ratification, it could not support the necessary two-thirds majority. Although the League of Nations was short-lived and clearly failed in its primary mission, it did essentially spawn the United Nations at the end of World War II, and many of the UN's structures and organizations came straight from its predecessor, with the concepts of an International Court and a General Assembly coming straight from the League. More importantly, the failures of the League ensured that the UN was given stronger authority and enforcement mechanisms, most notably through the latter's Security Council.

The Guardians

Author : Susan Pedersen
ISBN : 9780199570485
Genre : Anti-imperialist movements
File Size : 82. 59 MB
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The Guardians offers an entirely new account of the transformation of the imperial order after World War I. It recovers the crucial role played in that process by the mandates system of the League of Nations, the international regime set up to oversee the colonies and territories seized from Germany and the Ottoman Empire. The League mattered because it created an arena in which imperial rule came under intense public scrutiny and contestation. Colonialnationalists, Western humanitarians, international lawyers, and German and Italian colonial revisionists all brought their claims to Geneva, and these scandals and crises shaped international norms aboutsovereignty and trade, changing how imperial states sought to exercise power. We live today in a world in which statehood is ubiquitous but global inequality still rife. If we look back at the interwar era with international eyes, we can see our modern world in formation.

The United States And The United Nations Promoting The Public Welfare

Author : Louis K. Hyde
ISBN : UCAL:$B590102
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 66. 82 MB
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Freedom From Fear

Author : David M. Kennedy
ISBN : 9780199743827
Genre : History
File Size : 65. 17 MB
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Between 1929 and 1945, two great travails were visited upon the American people: the Great Depression and World War II. This book tells the story of how Americans endured, and eventually prevailed, in the face of those unprecedented calamities. The Depression was both a disaster and an opportunity. As David Kennedy vividly demonstrates, the economic crisis of the 1930s was far more than a simple reaction to the alleged excesses of the 1920s. For more than a century before 1929, America's unbridled industrial revolution had gyrated through repeated boom and bust cycles, wastefully consuming capital and inflicting untold misery on city and countryside alike. Freedom From Fear explores how the nation agonized over its role in World War II, how it fought the war, why the United States won, and why the consequences of victory were sometimes sweet, sometimes ironic. In a compelling narrative, Kennedy analyzes the determinants of American strategy, the painful choices faced by commanders and statesmen, and the agonies inflicted on the millions of ordinary Americans who were compelled to swallow their fears and face battle as best they could. Both comprehensive and colorful, this account of the most convulsive period in American history, excepting only the Civil War, reveals a period that formed the crucible in which modern America was formed. The Oxford History of the United States The Atlantic Monthly has praised The Oxford History of the United States as "the most distinguished series in American historical scholarship," a series that "synthesizes a generation's worth of historical inquiry and knowledge into one literally state-of-the-art book. Who touches these books touches a profession." Conceived under the general editorship of one of the leading American historians of our time, C. Vann Woodward, The Oxford History of the United States blends social, political, economic, cultural, diplomatic, and military history into coherent and vividly written narrative. Previous volumes are Robert Middlekauff's The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution; James M. McPherson's Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (which won a Pulitzer Prize and was a New York Times Best Seller); and James T. Patterson's Grand Expectations: The United States 1945-1974 (which won a Bancroft Prize).

The United Nations In The 21st Century

Author : Karen A. Mingst
ISBN : 9780813345390
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 24. 1 MB
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This popular text for courses on international organizations and international relations provides a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to the United Nations, exploring the historical, institutional, and theoretical foundations of the UN as well as the political processes and issues facing the organization today. Thoroughly revised throughout, the fourth edition focuses on major events since 2006, including the influence of emerging powers such as China, India, and Brazil, the crisis in UN peacekeeping, and the continuing decline of the UN’s relevance in international economic relations. This edition also includes a new chapter on the future of the United Nations, as well as new case studies on peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of Congo, human trafficking, and the challenges of state building for human security in Haiti. Helpful student resources include the Charter of the United Nations, a list of acronyms, suggested resources for additional research and reading, and a glossary.

Indian Information

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ISBN : STANFORD:36105117213558
Genre : India
File Size : 50. 34 MB
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The History And Future Of The World Trade Organization

Author : Craig VanGrasstek
ISBN : 9287038716
Genre : Business & Economics
File Size : 43. 34 MB
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This comprehensive account of the establishment of the WTO focuses on those who shaped its creation as well as those who have influenced its evolution. It alsoexamines trade negotiations, the WTO's dispute settlement role, the process of joining, and what lies ahead for the organization.

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