the battle of south mountain the history of the civil war battle that led the union and confederate armies to antietam

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The Battle Of South Mountain

Author : Charles River Editors
ISBN : 1535459573
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*Includes pictures *Includes accounts of the fighting by soldiers and generals on both sides *Includes footnotes, online resources and a bibliography for further reading The bloodiest day in American history took place on the 75th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution. On September 17, 1862, Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia fought George McClellan's Union Army of the Potomac outside Sharpsburg along Antietam Creek. That day, nearly 25,000 would become casualties, and Lee's army would barely survive fighting the much bigger Northern army. Although the battle was tactically a draw, it resulted in forcing Lee's army out of Maryland and back into Virginia, making it a strategic victory for the North and an opportune time for President Abraham Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, freeing all slaves in the rebellious states. When discussing the Civil War in Maryland, most of the focus is understandably on Antietam, but it's important not to overlook the battle that ultimately brought the Union and Confederate to Antietam Creek in the first place. The Battle of South Mountain was an opening salvo of sorts before Antietam, fought on September 14, 1862 among several gaps. An extension of the Blue Ridge Range, South Mountain was a heavily wooded and rocky terrain that ran southwest from Pennsylvania down to the Potomac River near Harpers Ferry. To the east of the mountain was the town of Frederick, Maryland, less than 50 miles from Washington, D.C. Despite being significantly outnumbered, Lee's army had the advantage of fighting defensively on higher terrain. At Crampton's Gap, Union General William Franklin's nearly 13,000 strong VI Corps crashed down on about 2,000 Confederates led by Howell Cobb who were part of Lafayette McLaws' division. McClellan had ordered Franklin's corps to set out for Crampton's Gap on the morning of September 14, wasting nearly 11 hours in the process, and Franklin delayed his assault for 3 more hours while arranging his lines for what turned out to be a short fight. The fighting that occurred on that long Sunday was fierce and constant. Artillery, musket, bayonet, and fists were all employed as weapons, resulting in a tremendous number of casualties. The Union forces engaged that day totaled 28,000 and by nightfall 2,325 were listed as casualties. The Confederate Army utilized 18,000 troops and suffered a loss of 2,685 men, an astounding 800 of which were listed as missing. By barely holding onto some of the passes, Lee was able to retreat to Sharpsburg, where he hoped to gather together his scattered forces. As it turned out, the last of the Confederates, A.P. Hill's Light Division, would only arrive around Sharpsburg during the afternoon on September 17, while the Battle of Antietam was at its peak and Lee's army was in danger of being surrounded and captured in its entirety. Thus, these men, many of whom are lost to history, engaged in a battle that led directly to the bloodiest single day in U.S. military history a few days later along Antietam Creek, and that battle would eventually compel President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation. The Battle of South Mountain, therefore, proved to be the catalyst for events that forever altered the course of the Civil War and the nation. The Battle of South Mountain: The History of the Civil War Battle that Led the Union and Confederate Armies to Antietam looks at the events that led up and brought on the Battle of South Mountain. Along with pictures of important people and places, you will learn about South Mountain like never before.

Unholy Sabbath

Author : Brian Matthew Jordan
ISBN : 1611210887
Genre : History
File Size : 43. 59 MB
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Many readers of Civil War history have been led to believe that the battle of South Mountain (September 14, 1862) was but a trifling skirmish, a preliminary engagement of little strategic or tactical consequence overshadowed by Antietam's horrific carnage just three days later. In fact, the fight was a decisive Federal victory and important turning point in the campaign, as historian Brian Matthew Jordan convincingly argues in his fresh interpretation Unholy Sabbath: The Battle of South Mountain in History and Memory, September 14, 1862. Most authors of the Maryland Campaign brush past South Mountain in a few paragraphs or a single chapter. Jordan, however, presents a full-length study based upon extensive archival research, newspaper accounts, regimental histories, official records, postwar reunion materials, public addresses, letters, and diaries. Readers will come away with a full understanding of the strategic results of the fighting in general, and a keen appreciation of the tactical actions at Fox, Turner, and Crampton's gaps in particular. The Northern victory provided a substantial boost for the downtrodden men of the Union army who recognized the battle for what it was: a sharp, hours-long combat that included hand-to-hand combat and resulted in nearly 5,000 casualties. Indeed, South Mountain was the first conclusive victory for the Army of the Potomac—the first time the men of that army maintained possession of the field and with it the responsibility of burying the dead. Jordan goes well beyond the military aspects of the battle to better understand and explain how and why South Mountain faded from public memory. He chronicles how and why former Confederates, true to the Lost Cause, insisted they were outnumbered while proud Union veterans remembered South Mountain as a full-scale engagement—wholly distinct from Antietam—where they outfought and defeated their Rebel opponents. About the Author: Brian Matthew Jordan graduated in 2009 with a Bachelor of Arts in History and Civil War Era Studies from Gettysburg College. The native of northeastern Ohio discovered a passion for history at an early age. He is a frequent speaker at Civil War Round Tables nationwide, delivers popular tours for Gettysburg College's Civil War Institute and the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, and conducts seminars for various Teaching American History grant recipients. His published work has appeared in multiple journals including Civil War History. Jordan is currently working on a Ph.D. in History at Yale University.

Before Antietam

Author : John Michael Priest
ISBN : 1572494077
Genre : History
File Size : 64. 94 MB
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Robert E. Lee, after decisively repelling John Pope's August 1862 invasion of Virginia at the Second Battle of Manassas, took the offensive. Moving north into Maryland, Lee divided his forces to capture Harpers Ferry while continuing his advance further into Union territory. George B. McClellan, the new Union commander, learned that Lee had divided his forces, and advanced to attack the Confederates. The armies, from squad to corps level, fought hard in both cavalry and infantry actions for control of the three gaps across South Mountain, about sixty miles from the Federal capital. The victory McClellan's officers and men gave him forced Lee to fall back and regroup near the town of Sharpsburg, Maryland, thus setting the stage for the Civil War's bloodiest day which soon followed at Antietam Creek. Three days before that September day, the opposing armies fought a series of engagements that came to be known as the Battle of South Mountain. Until Before Antietam those battles existed i

Antietam South Mountain And Harpers Ferry

Author : Ethan S. Rafuse
ISBN : 9780803219434
Genre : History
File Size : 46. 83 MB
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In September 1862 the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia and the Union Army of the Potomac conducted one of the truly great campaigns of the Civil War. At South Mountain, Harpers Ferry, and Antietam, North and South clashed in engagements whose magnitude and importance would earn this campaign a distinguished place in American military history. The siege of Harpers Ferry produced the largest surrender of U.S. troops in the nation's history until World War II, while the day-long battle at Antietam on September 17 still holds the distinction of being the single bloodiest day of combat in Amer.

A Savage Thunder

Author : Jim Murphy
ISBN : 9780689876332
Genre : Juvenile Nonfiction
File Size : 83. 5 MB
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Enhanced with maps, photographs, and black-and-white illustrations, the story of the battle of Antietam Creek in Maryland in 1862 is described via first-person accounts and factual details with an examination of how this major event changed a nation with regard to Lincoln drafting the Emancipation Proclamation.

The Battle Of South Mountain

Author : John David Hoptak
ISBN : 1596294019
Genre : History
File Size : 46. 5 MB
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In September 1862, Robert E. Lee led the Army of Northern Virginia north of the Potomac River for the time as part of his Northern invasion, seeking a quick end to the war. Lee divided his army in three, sending General James Longstreet north to Hagerstown and Stonewall Jackson south to Harper's Ferry. It was at three mountain passes, referred to as South Mountain, that Lee's army met the Federal forces commanded by General George B. McClellan on September 14. In a fierce day-long battle spread out across miles of rugged, mountainous terrain, McClellan defeated Lee but the Confederates did tie up the Federals long enough to allow Jackson's conquest of Harper's Ferry. Join historian John Hoptak as he narrates the critical Battle of South Mountain, long overshadowed by the Battle of Antietam.

To Antietam Creek

Author : David S. Hartwig
ISBN : 9781421408767
Genre : History
File Size : 29. 87 MB
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In early September 1862 thousands of Union soldiers huddled within the defenses of Washington, disorganized and discouraged from their recent defeat at Second Manassas. Confederate General Robert E. Lee then led his tough and confident Army of Northern Virginia into Maryland in a bold gamble to force a showdown that would win Southern independence. The future of the Union hung in the balance. The campaign that followed lasted only two weeks, but it changed the course of the Civil War. For the sesquicentennial of Antietam and the Maryland Campaign, D. Scott Hartwig delivers a riveting first installment of a two-volume study of the campaign and climactic battle. It takes the reader from the controversial return of George B. McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac through the Confederate invasion, the siege and capture of Harpers Ferry, the day-long Battle of South Mountain, and, ultimately, to the eve of the great and terrible Battle of Antietam. -- Thomas G. Clemens, Save Historic Antietam Foundation

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