techniques in high pressure neutron scattering

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Techniques In High Pressure Neutron Scattering

Author : Stefan Klotz
ISBN : 9781439835623
Genre : Science
File Size : 56. 28 MB
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Drawing on the author’s practical work from the last 20 years, Techniques in High Pressure Neutron Scattering is one of the first books to gather recent methods that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. The author shows how neutron scattering has to be adapted to the pressure range and type of measurement. Suitable for both newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, the book describes various solutions spanning two to three orders of magnitude in pressure that have emerged in the past three decades. Many engineering concepts are illustrated through examples of real high pressure devices that have demonstrated their capacity and have produced scientific results. After introducing basic engineering concepts related to the elastic and plastic behavior of cylindrical pressure devices, the text emphasizes mechanical and neutronic properties of construction materials. Subsequent chapters describe numerous high pressure techniques, including liquid/gas, clamp, and McWhan cells. The book also focuses on Paris-Edinburgh devices, high pressure metrology, and scientific applications.

Techniques In High Pressure Neutron Scattering

Author : Khamisi Zaman
ISBN : 168117717X
Genre :
File Size : 24. 68 MB
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Neutron scattering experiments determine the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material. Neutron scattering as an experimental technique is used in crystallography, physics, physical chemistry, biophysics, and materials research. It is practiced at research reactors and spallation neutron sources that provide neutron radiation of sufficient intensity. Neutron diffraction (elastic scattering) is used for determining structures; inelastic neutron scattering is used for the study of atomic vibrations and other excitations. It is the ideal method to study a wide range of important and common materials like ice and ammonia. Knowledge of the positions of the atoms in systems like these when they are compressed helps our understanding of topics as diverse as the behavior of proteins and the origins of the magnetic fields of planets like Uranus and Neptune. Until 1990, neutron diffraction was limited to pressures below 30,000 atmospheres. This was a very low pressure when compared to other structural techniques like x-ray diffraction and light-scattering which at that time were achieving pressures in excess of 1 million atmospheres. The ability to manipulate structure and properties using pressure has been well known for many centuries. Diraction provides the unique ability to observe these structural changes in fine detail on length-scales spanning atomic to nanometre dimensions. Amongst the broad suite of scattering tools available today, neutrons provide unique capabilities of fundamental importance. However, to date, the growth of neutron scattering under extremes of pressure has been limited by the weakness of available sources. In recent years, extensive investments have led to the construction of a new generation of neutron sources while existing facilities have been revitalised by upgrades. The timely convergence of these bright facilities with new pressure-cell technologies suggests that the field of high-pressure neutron science is on the cusp of substantial growth. It has increased the pressure range for neutron scattering by a factor of ten with the development of a novel large volume pressure cell. This book presents contemporary methods and techniques that allow neutron scattering well beyond 10 GPa. It demonstrates how high pressure neutron scattering can be used to study the structure and dynamics of a wide range of materials. It will be of pertinent for newcomers and experienced high pressure scientists and engineers, researchers and practitioners, as well as advanced graduate students.

High Pressure Crystallography

Author : Przemyslaw Dera
ISBN : 9789048192588
Genre : Science
File Size : 78. 40 MB
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This unique book is devoted to the theme of crystallographic studies at high pressure. It places emphasis on the phenomena characteristic to the compressed state of matter, as well as experimental and theoretical techniques, used to study these phenomena.

Neutron Scattering In Biology

Author : Jörg Fitter
ISBN : 3540291083
Genre : Medical
File Size : 90. 90 MB
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The advent of new neutron facilities and the improvement of existing sources and instruments world wide supply the biological community with many new opportunities in the areas of structural biology and biological physics. The present volume offers a clear description of the various neutron-scattering techniques currently being used to answer biologically relevant questions. Their utility is illustrated through examples by some of the leading researchers in the field of neutron scattering. This volume will be a reference for researchers and a step-by-step guide for young scientists entering the field and the advanced graduate student.

Advances In High Pressure Techniques For Geophysical Applications

Author : J. Chen
ISBN : 0080457665
Genre : Science
File Size : 85. 89 MB
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High-pressure mineral physics is a field that is strongly driven by the development of new technology. Fifty years ago, when experimentally achievable pressures were limited to just 25 GPa, little was know about the mineralogy of the Earth's lower mantle. Silicate perovskite, the likely dominant mineral of the deep Earth, was identified only when the high-pressure techniques broke the pressure barrier of 25 GPa in 1970s. However, as the maximum achievable pressure reached beyond one Megabar (100 GPa) and even to the pressure of Earth’s core on minute samples, new discoveries increasingly were fostered by the development of new analytical techniques and improvements in sensitivity and precision of existing techniques. The book consists of six sections which group the papers according to their main topics: a) Elastic and Anelastic Properties; b) Rheology; c) Melt and Glass Properties; d) Structural and Magnetic Properties; e) Diffraction and Spectroscopy; f) Pressure Calibration and Generation. As many papers cover multiple topics, readers may find papers of interest in different sections. All papers are prepared with emphasis on technical details suitable for a technical reference. Many on-line software resources are also listed in as detailed a manner as possible. However, the URL of the software sites may be subject to change without notice. * State of the art in a very important branch of geophysics, namely the experimental determination of material behavior at the extreme conditions of planetary interiors * Emphasis on technical details suitable for a technical reference * Includes many on-line software resources

High Pressure Chemistry And Biochemistry

Author : R. van Eldik
ISBN : 9789400938274
Genre : Science
File Size : 28. 49 MB
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It was the objective of the ASI on "Advances in High Pressure Studies of Chemical and Biochemical Systems" to present the current status of such studies and to emphasize the advances achieved during the nine years since the previous ASI on "High Pressure Chemistry". These advances are partly due to the improved instrumentation enabling static and dynamic measurements at pressures several orders of magnitude higher than before, and partly due to the more general availability of high pressure equipment. This has led to a remarkable development in various areas of physics and chemistry, and especially in biochemistry. Throughout the presentation of this Advanced Study Institute the emphasis fell on the teaching character of such a summer school, and the contributions in this volume are of such a nature. Following a general introduction to modern high pressure research, a series of chapters on theoretical and experimental studies of gases, fluids and solids at high temperatures and pressures are presented with special emphasis on the physical aspects involved. Instrumentation used in such studies, viz. shock compression, NMR spectroscopy, laser scattering, x-ray and neutron scattering, and vibrational spectroscopy are treated in detail. The subsequent chapters are devoted to the application of high pressure techniques in the broad areas of organic, inorganic and biochemistry_ The formal lectures were supplemented by 29 contributed papers, for which a list of titles is included.

Neutron Scattering

Author :
ISBN : 9780080860107
Genre : Science
File Size : 82. 27 MB
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Neutron Scattering

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