stratigraphic paleobiology understanding the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space

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Stratigraphic Paleobiology

Author : Mark E. Patzkowsky
ISBN : 9780226649375
Genre : Science
File Size : 90. 77 MB
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Whether the fossil record should be read at face value or whether it presents a distorted view of the history of life is an argument seemingly as old as many fossils themselves. In the late 1700s, Georges Cuvier argued for a literal interpretation, but in the early 1800s, Charles Lyell’s gradualist view of the earth’s history required a more nuanced interpretation of that same record. To this day, the tension between literal and interpretive readings lies at the heart of paleontological research, influencing the way scientists view extinction patterns and their causes, ecosystem persistence and turnover, and the pattern of morphologic change and mode of speciation. With Stratigraphic Paleobiology, Mark E. Patzkowsky and Steven M. Holland present a critical framework for assessing the fossil record, one based on a modern understanding of the principles of sediment accumulation. Patzkowsky and Holland argue that the distribution of fossil taxa in time and space is controlled not only by processes of ecology, evolution, and environmental change, but also by the stratigraphic processes that govern where and when sediment that might contain fossils is deposited and preserved. The authors explore the exciting possibilities of stratigraphic paleobiology, and along the way demonstrate its great potential to answer some of the most critical questions about the history of life: How and why do environmental niches change over time? What is the tempo and mode of evolutionary change and what processes drive this change? How has the diversity of life changed through time, and what processes control this change? And, finally, what is the tempo and mode of change in ecosystems over time?

Principles Of Sequence Stratigraphy

Author : Octavian Catuneanu
ISBN : 9780080473987
Genre : Science
File Size : 68. 45 MB
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Principles of Sequence Stratigraphy provides an in-depth coverage and impartial assessment of all current ideas and models in the field of sequence stratigraphy. Even though widely popular among all groups interested in the analysis of sedimentary basin fills, both in academia and in the industry, sequence stratigraphy is yet a difficult undertaking due to an overwhelming jargon and the persistence of conflicting approaches as to how the sequence stratigraphic method should be applied to the rock record. This textbook examines the relationship between such conflicting approaches from the perspective of a unifying platform, demonstrating that sufficient common ground exists to eliminate terminology barriers and to facilitate communication between all practitioners of sequence stratigraphy. This work is not only a review of past and current literature, but also includes key original viewpoints and is illustrated with new graphic material and numerous field examples of outcrop, core, well log and 3D seismic data in full colour. The book is addressed to anyone interested in understanding and applying the method of sequence stratigraphic analysis, from students to geologists, geophysicists and reservoir engineers. Sequence stratigraphy remains the most recent paradigm in the broad field of sedimentary geology, with tremendous potential to deciphering the record of global change and to improving the success of economic exploration. * Offers theoretical guidelines of how the facies and time relationships are expected to be under specific circumstances such as subsidence patterns, sediment supply, topographic gradients, etc. * Contains numerous high-quality and full-color diagrams, photographs and illustrations, virtually on every aid in comprehension of the subject * Features a dedicated chapter on discussions and conclusions incorporating all previous chapters with references, basic principles and strategies * Provides an extensive list of references for further reading, as well as an author and subject index for quick information access

Rereading The Fossil Record

Author : David Sepkoski
ISBN : 9780226748559
Genre : Science
File Size : 29. 71 MB
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Although fossils have provided some of the most important evidence for evolution, the discipline of paleontology has not always had a central place in evolutionary biology. Beginning in Darwin's day, and for much of the twentieth century, paleontologists were often regarded as mere fossil collectors by many evolutionary biologists, their attempts to contribute to evolutionary theory ignored or regarded with scorn. In the 1950s, however, paleontologists began mounting a counter-movement that insisted on the valid, important, and original contribution of paleontology to evolutionary theory. This movement, called “paleobiology” by its proponents, advocated for an approach to the fossil record that was theoretical, quantitative, and oriented towards explaining the broad patterns of evolution and extinction in the history of life. Rereading the Fossil Record provides, as never before, a historical account of the origin, rise, and importance of paleobiology, from the mid-nineteenth century to the late 1980s. Drawing on a wealth of archival material, David Sepkoski shows how the movement was conceived and promoted by a small but influential group of paleontologists—including Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge, among others—and examines the intellectual, disciplinary, and political dynamics involved in the ascendency of paleobiology. By emphasizing the close relationship between paleobiology and other evolutionary disciplines, this book writes a new chapter in the history of evolutionary biology, while also offering insights into the dynamics of disciplinary change in modern science.

The Paleobiological Revolution

Author : David Sepkoski
ISBN : 9780226748597
Genre : Science
File Size : 79. 8 MB
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The Paleobiological Revolution chronicles the incredible ascendance of the once-maligned science of paleontology to the vanguard of a field. With the establishment of the modern synthesis in the 1940s and the pioneering work of George Gaylord Simpson, Ernst Mayr, and Theodosius Dobzhansky, as well as the subsequent efforts of Stephen Jay Gould, David Raup, and James Valentine, paleontology became embedded in biology and emerged as paleobiology, a first-rate discipline central to evolutionary studies. Pairing contributions from some of the leading actors of the transformation with overviews from historians and philosophers of science, the essays here capture the excitement of the seismic changes in the discipline. In so doing, David Sepkoski and Michael Ruse harness the energy of the past to call for further study of the conceptual development of modern paleobiology.

The Meaning Of Fossils

Author : M. J. S. Rudwick
ISBN : 0226731030
Genre : Nature
File Size : 74. 49 MB
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Examines the way in which the study of fossils in five historical periods since the Renaissance reflects man's changing view of nature

The Geologic Time Scale 2012

Author : F M Gradstein
ISBN : 9780444594488
Genre : Science
File Size : 86. 1 MB
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The Geologic Time Scale 2012, winner of a 2012 PROSE Award Honorable Mention for Best Multi-volume Reference in Science from the Association of American Publishers, is the framework for deciphering the history of our planet Earth. The authors have been at the forefront of chronostratigraphic research and initiatives to create an international geologic time scale for many years, and the charts in this book present the most up-to-date, international standard, as ratified by the International Commission on Stratigraphy and the International Union of Geological Sciences. This 2012 geologic time scale is an enhanced, improved and expanded version of the GTS2004, including chapters on planetary scales, the Cryogenian-Ediacaran periods/systems, a prehistory scale of human development, a survey of sequence stratigraphy, and an extensive compilation of stable-isotope chemostratigraphy. This book is an essential reference for all geoscientists, including researchers, students, and petroleum and mining professionals. The presentation is non-technical and illustrated with numerous colour charts, maps and photographs. The book also includes a detachable wall chart of the complete time scale for use as a handy reference in the office, laboratory or field. The most detailed international geologic time scale available that contextualizes information in one single reference for quick desktop access Gives insights in the construction, strengths, and limitations of the geological time scale that greatly enhances its function and its utility Aids understanding by combining with the mathematical and statistical methods to scaled composites of global succession of events Meets the needs of a range of users at various points in the workflow (researchers extracting linear time from rock records, students recognizing the geologic stage by their content)

Paleontology

Author : Derek Turner
ISBN : 9781139497787
Genre : Science
File Size : 38. 57 MB
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In the wake of the paleobiological revolution of the 1970s and 1980s, paleontologists continue to investigate far-reaching questions about how evolution works. Many of those questions have a philosophical dimension. How is macroevolution related to evolutionary changes within populations? Is evolutionary history contingent? How much can we know about the causes of evolutionary trends? How do paleontologists read the patterns in the fossil record to learn about the underlying evolutionary processes? Derek Turner explores these and other questions, introducing the reader to exciting recent work in the philosophy of paleontology and to theoretical issues including punctuated equilibria and species selection. He also critically examines some of the major accomplishments and arguments of paleontologists of the last 40 years.

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