spell it out the story of english spelling

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Spell It Out

Author : David Crystal
ISBN : 9781847658227
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 57. 21 MB
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Why is there an 'h' in ghost? William Caxton, inventor of the printing press and his Flemish employees are to blame: without a dictionary or style guide to hand in fifteenth century Bruges, the typesetters simply spelled it the way it sounded to their foreign ears, and it stuck. Seventy-five per cent of English spelling is regular but twenty-five per cent is complicated, and in Spell It Out our foremost linguistics expert David Crystal extends a helping hand to the confused and curious alike. He unearths the stories behind the rogue words that confound us, and explains why these peculiarities entered the mainstream, in an epic journey taking in sixth century monks, French and Latin upstarts, the Industrial Revolution and the internet. By learning the history and the principles, Crystal shows how the spellings that break all the rules become easier to get right.

Spell It Out

Author : David Crystal
ISBN : 9781250003478
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 88. 26 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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A lesser-known history of English spelling by the award-winning author of The Story of English in 100 Words is presented through engaging, pithy chapters that cover such topics as the introduction of the Roman alphabet, each letter's origins and the development of long and short vowels.

The Story Of English In 100 Words

Author : David Crystal
ISBN : 9781847654595
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 30. 64 MB
Format : PDF, Kindle
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Featuring Latinate and Celtic words, weasel words and nonce-words, ancient words ('loaf') to cutting edge ('twittersphere') and spanning the indispensable words that shape our tongue ('and', 'what') to the more fanciful ('fopdoodle'), Crystal takes us along the winding byways of language via the rude, the obscure and the downright surprising. In this unique new history of the world's most ubiquitous language, linguistics expert David Crystal draws on words that best illustrate the huge variety of sources, influences and events that have helped to shape our vernacular since the first definitively English word was written down in the fifth century ('roe', in case you are wondering).

Making A Point

Author : David Crystal
ISBN : 9781466865648
Genre : Language Arts & Disciplines
File Size : 60. 10 MB
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The triumphant concluding volume in David Crystal's classic trilogy on the English language combines the first history of English punctuation with a complete guide on how to use it. Behind every punctuation mark lies a thousand stories. The punctuation of English, marked with occasional rationality, is founded on arbitrariness and littered with oddities. For a system of a few dozen marks it generates a disproportionate degree of uncertainty and passion, inspiring organizations like the Apostrophe Protection Society and sending enthusiasts, correction-pens in hand, in a crusade against error across the United States. Professor Crystal leads us through this minefield with characteristic wit, clarity, and commonsense. In David Crystal's Making a Point, he gives a fascinating account of the origin and progress of every kind of punctuation mark over one and a half millennia and offers sound advice on how punctuation may be used to meet the needs of every occasion and context.

The Stories Of English

Author : David Crystal
ISBN : 9781468306170
Genre : History
File Size : 73. 8 MB
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The groundbreaking history of the English language, fusing chronological with anecdotal and etymological accounts of individual word-histories, to create not one story, but many stories. The English language is now accepted as the global lingua franca of the modern age, spoken or written in by over a quarter of the human race. But how did it evolve? How did a language spoken originally by a few thousand Anglo-Saxons become one used by more than 1,500 million? What developments can be seen as we move from Beowulf to Chaucer to Shakespeare to Dickens and the present day? A host of fascinating questions are answered in The Stories of English, a groundbreaking history of the language by David Crystal, the world-renowned writer and commentator on English. Many books have been written about English, but they have all focused on a single variety: the educated, printed language called “standard” English. David Crystal turns the history of English on its head and instead provides a startlingly original view of where the richness, creativity and diversity of the language truly lies—in the accents and dialects of nonstandard English users all over the world. Whatever their regional, social or ethnic background, each group has a story worth telling, whether it is in Scotland or Somerset, South Africa or Singapore. Interweaved within this central chronological story are accounts of uses of dialect around the world as well as in literary classics from The Canterbury Tales to The Lord of the Rings. For the first time, regional speech and writing is placed center stage, giving a sense of the social realities behind the development of English. This significant shift in perspective enables the reader to understand for the first time the importance of everyday, previously marginalized, voices in our language and provides an argument too for the way English should be taught in the future.

The Associated Press Stylebook And Libel Manual

Author : Norm Goldstein
ISBN : 0201339854
Genre : Journalism
File Size : 24. 51 MB
Format : PDF, ePub
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The style of the Associated Press defines clear news writing. In fact, more people write for the AP news service than for any single newspaper or broadcaster in the world. The AP Stylebook is therefore ”the journalist’s bible,” an essential handbook for all writers, editors, students, and public-relations specialists. The AP Stylebook contains over 5,000 entries laying out the AP’s rules on grammar, spelling, punctuation, and usage. It gives journalists the references they need to write about the world today: correct names of countries and organizations, language to avoid, common trademarks. Special sections cover business and sports reporting. This edition, published in the Associated Press’s 150th year, also includes crucial advice on how writers can guard against libel and copyright infringement.An up-to-date AP Stylebook belongs on the desk of every working writer.

Hyperbole And A Half

Author : Allie Brosh
ISBN : 9781451666175
Genre : Biography & Autobiography
File Size : 41. 24 MB
Format : PDF, Docs
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Collects autobiographical, illustrated essays and cartoons from the author's popular blog and related new material that humorously and candidly deals with her own idiosyncrasies and battles with depression.

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