religion authority and the state

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Religion Authority And The State

Author : Leo D Lefebure
ISBN : 9781137599902
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 79. 71 MB
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In commemoration of Constantine’s grant of freedom of religion to Christians, this wide-ranging volume examines the ambiguous legacy of this emperor in relation to the present world, discussing the perennial challenges of relations between religions and governments. The authors examine the new global ecumenical movement inspired by Pentecostals, the role of religion in the Irish Easter rebellion against the British, and the relation between religious freedom and government in the United States. Other essays debate the relation of Islam to the violence in Nigeria, the place of the family in church-state relations in the Philippines, the role of confessional identity in the political struggles in the Balkans, and the construction of Slavophile identity in nineteenth-century Russian Orthodox political theology. The volume also investigates the contrast between written constitutions and actual practice in the relations between governments and religions in Australia, Indonesia, and Egypt. The case studies and surveys illuminate both specific contexts and also widespread currents in religion-state relations across the world.

Asian Visions Of Authority

Author : Charles F. Keyes
ISBN : 0824814711
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 24. 12 MB
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Since the Meiji Restoration in 1868 initiated a new era in Asian history, the rulers of various Asian states have sought to control, marginalize, or suppress religious communities within their territories to ensure that these communities do not promote visions in conflict with those of the state. It is now apparent that the modernization and nation-building projects of Asian states in that era have not only failed to subordinate religious authority to that of the state, but have created a crisis of authority that has led many people in these countries to turn to religious visions of authority other than those sanctioned by their states. The essays in this volume together make an important statement about the nature of Asian religions and societies in the late twentieth century, and demonstrate that, despite the modernization of East and Southeast Asia, religious activity has remained resilient and pervasive. As Jean Comaroff writes in her Epilogue to this work, "... the 'religions of Asia' were often invoked as evidence for a global evolutionary scheme in which Europe emerged as the birthplace of secular reason, itself the sine qua non of modern life. Yet the present essays draw on Asian history and ethnography to assert... that religion and ritual are crucial in the life of 'modern' nations and communities, in Asia as elsewhere. They urge us, in collective voice, to distrust disenchantment, to rethink the telos of development that still informs the models of much mainstream social science." The noted scholars contributing to this volume examine some of the tensions and conflicts between states and religious communities over the scope of religious views of the communities, the consequences of state-imposed definitions of religion, and the religious basis for resistance to state authority. These studies focus on Japan, Korea, the People's Republic of China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Cambodia. A work of substantial and well-grounded scholarship, Asian Visions of Authority will be of great interest to specialists in East and Southeast Asia, to students of religion and society, and to both sociologists of religion and religious studies specialists in Asian traditions.

Democratic Authority And The Separation Of Church And State

Author : Robert Audi
ISBN : 9780199796083
Genre : Law
File Size : 52. 25 MB
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Democratic states must protect the liberty of citizens and must accommodate both religious liberty and cultural diversity. This democratic imperative is one reason for the increasing secularity of most modern democracies. Religious citizens, however, commonly see a secular state as unfriendly toward religion. This book articulates principles that enable secular governments to protect liberty in a way that judiciously separates church and state and fully respects religious citizens. After presenting a brief account of the relation between religion and ethics, the book shows how ethics can be independent of religion-evidentially autonomous in a way that makes moral knowledge possible for secular citizens-without denying religious sources a moral authority of their own. With this account in view, it portrays a church-state separation that requires governments not only to avoid religious establishment but also to maintain religious neutrality. The book shows how religious neutrality is related to such issues as teaching evolutionary biology in public schools, the legitimacy of vouchers to fund private schooling, and governmental support of "faith-based initiatives." The final chapter shows how the proposed theory of religion and politics incorporates toleration and forgiveness as elements in flourishing democracies. Tolerance and forgiveness are described; their role in democratic citizenship is clarified; and in this light a conception of civic virtue is proposed. Overall, the book advances the theory of liberal democracy, clarifies the relation between religion and ethics, provides distinctive principles governing religion in politics, and provides a theory of toleration for pluralistic societies. It frames institutional principles to guide governmental policy toward religion; it articulates citizenship standards for political conduct by individuals; it examines the case for affirming these two kinds of standards on the basis of what, historically, has been called natural reason; and it defends an account of toleration that enhances the practical application of the ethical framework both in individual nations and in the international realm.

Religious Authority And The State In Africa

Author : Jennifer G. Cooke
ISBN : 9781442258877
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 75. 12 MB
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Two important dynamics have driven political and social change in sub-Saharan Africa during the past 25 years. New religious trends have emerged within the main faiths of Islam and Christianity, in particular the emergence of more charismatic, assertive forms of religious expression. Meanwhile, political space has opened in scores of countries as one-party rule has given way to a process of democratization, yet to be completed. Based on their field work in each country, the authors examine the various ways in which religious actors have chosen to engage with the state. They also consider how governments and political actors respond to, and seek to manage, these interactions.

God S Caliph

Author : Patricia Crone
ISBN : 0521541115
Genre : History
File Size : 66. 6 MB
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This study examines how religious authority was distributed in early Islam. It argues the case that, as in Shi'ism, it was concentrated in the head of state, rather than dispersed among learned laymen as in Sunnism. Originally the caliph was both head of state and ultimate source of religious law; the Sunni pattern represents the outcome of a conflict between the caliph and early scholars who, as spokesmen of the community, assumed religious leadership for themselves. Many Islamicists have assumed the Shi'ite concept of the imamate to be a deviant development. In contrast, this book argues that it is an archaism preserving the concept of religious authority with which all Muslims began.

Religious Authority And Political Thought In Twelver Shi Ism

Author : Hamid Mavani
ISBN : 9781135044732
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 77. 41 MB
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Ranging from the time of the infallible Imams, to the contemporary era, this book provides a comprehensive overview of Shi’i religious and political authority, focusing on Iran and Lebanon, without limiting the discourse to Khomeini’s version of an Islamic State. Utilising untapped Arabic and Persian sources, Hamid Mavani provides a detailed, nuanced, and diverse theoretical discussion on the doctrine of leadership (Imamate) in Shi’ism from traditional, theological, philosophical, and mystical perspectives. This theoretical discussion becomes the foundation for an analysis of the transmission of the Twelfth Imam’s religious and political authority vis-á-vis the jurists during his Greater Occultation. Bringing the often overlooked diversity within the Shi’i tradition into sharp focus, Religious Authority and Political Thought in Twelver Shi’ism discusses what constitutes an Islamic state, if there is such a notion as an Islamic state. Hamid Mavani further explores the possibility of creating a space for secularity, facilitating a separation between religion and state, and ensuring equal rights for all. This book argues that such a development is only possible if there is a rehabilitation of ijtihad. If this were to materialise modern religious, social, economic, political, and cultural challenges could be addressed more successfully. This book will be of use to scholars and students with interests ranging from Politics, to Religion, to Middle East Studies.

Politics And Religious Authority

Author : Richard J. Gelm
ISBN : UOM:39015032756341
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 77. 64 MB
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In a study that is the first to survey the political attitudes of America's Catholic bishops, Richard Gelm asesses the political effects of Vatican II.

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