necessary beings an essay on ontology modality and the relations between them

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Necessary Beings

Author : Bob Hale
ISBN : 9780199669578
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 29. 87 MB
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Bob Hale presents an original analysis of what is required for the existence of entities of various kinds, arguing that ontology and modality are mutually dependent upon one another: questions about what kinds of things there are cannot be properly understood without recourse to considerations about possibility and necessity, and questions about the nature and basis of necessity and possibility cannot be tackled without drawing on the methodology of ontology. Heargues that facts about what kinds of things exist depend on facts about what is possible, which means that at least some facts are fundamental--nonreducible to other, non-modal sorts of facts. Theyhave their basis in the natures or essences of things--not in meanings or concepts.

The Nature Of Necessity

Author : Alvin Plantinga
ISBN : 0198244142
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 56. 70 MB
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This is a reissue of a book which is an exploration and defence of the notion of modality 'de re', the idea that objects have both essential and accidental properties. It is one of the first full-length studies of the modalities to emerge from the debate to which Saul Kripke, David Lewis, Ruth Marcus and others have contributed. The argument is developed by means of the notion of possible worlds, and ranges over key problems including the nature of essence, trans-world identity, negative existential propositions, and the existence of unactual objects in other possible worlds. In the final chapters Professor Plantinga applies his logical theories to the clarification of two problems in the philosophy of religion - the Problem of Evil and the Ontological Argument.

The Primacy Of Perception

Author : Maurice Merleau-Ponty
ISBN : 0810101645
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 55. 8 MB
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The Primacy of Perception brings together a number of important studies by Maurice Merleau-Ponty that appeared in various publications from 1947 to 1961. The title essay, which is in essence a presentation of the underlying thesis of his Phenomenology of Perception, is followed by two courses given by Merleau-Ponty at the Sorbonne on phenomenological psychology. "Eye and Mind" and the concluding chapters present applications of Merleau-Ponty's ideas to the realms of art, philosophy of history, and politics. Taken together, the studies in this volume provide a systematic introduction to the major themes of Merleau-Ponty's philosophy.

Frames Of War

Author : Judith Butler
ISBN : 9781784782498
Genre : Political Science
File Size : 34. 61 MB
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In Frames of War, Judith Butler explores the media’s portrayal of state violence, a process integral to the way in which the West wages modern war. This portrayal has saturated our understanding of human life, and has led to the exploitation and abandonment of whole peoples, who are cast as existential threats rather than as living populations in need of protection. These people are framed as already lost, to imprisonment, unemployment and starvation, and can easily be dismissed. In the twisted logic that rationalizes their deaths, the loss of such populations is deemed necessary to protect the lives of ‘the living.’ This disparity, Butler argues, has profound implications for why and when we feel horror, outrage, guilt, loss and righteous indifference, both in the context of war and, increasingly, everyday life. This book discerns the resistance to the frames of war in the context of the images from Abu Ghraib, the poetry from Guantanamo, recent European policy on immigration and Islam, and debates on normativity and non-violence. In this urgent response to ever more dominant methods of coercion, violence and racism, Butler calls for a re-conceptualization of the Left, one that brokers cultural difference and cultivates resistance to the illegitimate and arbitrary effects of state violence and its vicissitudes.

The Savage Mind

Author : Claude Lvi-strauss
ISBN : 0226474844
Genre : Philosophy
File Size : 73. 4 MB
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Discusses the significance of totemism among primitive peoples and its interpretation by anthropologists and philosophies

The Open

Author : Giorgio Agamben
ISBN : 9780804767064
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 24. 33 MB
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In 'The Open', contemporary Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben considers the ways in which the 'human' has been thought of as either a distinct and superior type of animal, or a kind of being that is essentially different from animal altogether.

Being Alive

Author : Tim Ingold
ISBN : 9781136735431
Genre : Social Science
File Size : 54. 87 MB
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Tim Ingold sets out to restore life to where it should belong, at the heart of anthropological concern.

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