functionalization of semiconductor surfaces

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Functionalization Of Semiconductor Surfaces

Author : Franklin (Feng) Tao
ISBN : 9781118199800
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 30. 99 MB
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This book presents both fundamental knowledge and latest achievements of this rapidly growing field in the last decade. It presents a complete and concise picture of the the state-of-the-art in the field, encompassing the most active international research groups in the world. Led by contributions from leading global research groups, the book discusses the functionalization of semiconductor surface. Dry organic reactions in vacuum and wet organic chemistry in solution are two major categories of strategies for functionalization that will be described. The growth of multilayer-molecular architectures on the formed organic monolayers will be documented. The immobilization of biomolecules such as DNA on organic layers chemically attached to semiconductor surfaces will be introduced. The patterning of complex structures of organic layers and metallic nanoclusters toward sensing techniques will be presented as well.

Lateral Interactions In Organic Functionalization Of Semiconductor Surfaces

Author : Bonggeun Shong
ISBN : OCLC:889651802
Genre :
File Size : 62. 30 MB
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As the size scale of current electronic devices is reaching a fundamental physical limit, new and innovative materials solutions are required for continuous progress of semiconductor technologies. Moreover, the development of nanotechnologies comprised of nanoscale materials is burgeoning in various fields. Nanomaterials often show completely different properties compared to their bulk, dominated by surfaces or interfaces. Given the importance of these interfaces, organic functionalization of semiconductor surfaces, or direct attachment of organic molecules, is a topic of increasing interest. By creating interfaces between inorganic and organic functionalities, we may be able to tune the properties of the surface with the versatility and tailorability of organic molecules. In order to utilize organic functionalization in such applications, a deep understanding of the adsorption of the molecules on the surfaces is necessary. In this work, we focus on the fundamental aspects of the adsorption chemistry of organic molecules on a semiconductor surface, and on the lateral interactions between the adsorbed molecules. We explore several molecules' adsorption chemistry on the Ge(100)-2×1 surface. Experimental techniques such as infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption, in addition to theoretical methods including density functional theory calculations and Monte Carlo simulations, are utilized. The strongest interaction that drives the adsorption of the molecules on the surface is local bond formation between the molecules and "dimers" of the Ge(100)-2×1 surface, such as C-dative bonding of isocyanides, dissociative adsorption of phenols, and cycloaddition of nitrobenzene. However, weaker lateral interactions between the adsorbates or between adsorbates and the surface are also present, and they significantly affect the adsorption of the molecules, especially at higher coverages of the adsorbates. In studies of adsorption of small molecules that interact with one dimer, we observe a coverage-dependant spectral shift of tert-butyl isocyanide, and explain self-assembly of methanol and ethylene that had been reported in the literature. Slightly larger molecules can interact with other neighboring dimers: we show that phenol undergoes a shift in molecular orientation due to non-covalent adsorbate-surface interactions, and we determine that coverage-dependent evolution of dual and single adsorption products of benzenediols originates from inter-adsorbate interactions. Overall, this dissertation provides new insights toward the organic functionalization of semiconductor surfaces.

Functionalization Of Semiconductor Surfaces

Author : Franklin (Feng)
ISBN : OCLC:966397913
Genre : Electronic books
File Size : 72. 32 MB
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Presenting both fundamental knowledge and latest achievements of this rapidly growing field in the last decade, this book offers a complete and concise picture of the functionalization of semiconductor surfaces, describing dry organic reactions in vacuum and wet organic chemistry in solution. --

Growth And Functionalization Of Group Iv Semiconductor Surfaces

Author : Collin Kwok-Leung Mui
ISBN : STANFORD:36105023742344
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Organic Functionalization Of Ge 100 2 1

Author : Keith T. Wong
ISBN : OCLC:859678167
Genre :
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Organic functionalization of semiconductor surfaces allows established knowledge of inorganic semiconductor-based microelectronics to be combined with highly tailorable organic molecules to enable novel technologies. Such molecular level control may contribute to continued microelectronics device scaling as well as permit new device functionality that does not directly depend on device dimensions. The latter is of increasing interest as integrated circuit dimensions approach atomic length scales and physical limitations restrict continued device scaling. Application of organic functionalization requires a detailed understanding of semiconductor surface chemistry, and the work in this thesis is aimed at growing our fundamental understanding of the chemistry at these surfaces. Using primarily the Ge(100)-2×1 surface as a model system, infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments in ultra-high vacuum and quantum chemical calculations were performed to elucidate specific features of organic functionalization chemistry. Most studies in the organic functionalization literature focus on understanding the reactivity of individual molecules. Part of this thesis is devoted to bringing together such results and using density functional theory calculations to reveal broader trends in functionalization chemistry. In particular, it is shown that reactivity of organic molecules at semiconductor surfaces often follows periodic trends. On the Ge(100)-2×1 surface, X--Ge dative bond strength for analogous functional groups increases for heteroatoms, X, located lower in a group or to the left in a period. The same trends apply on the Si(100)-2×1 surface, although dative bonding is overall more favorable on Si than on Ge. On the other hand, for ordinary covalent bonds to the Ge(100)-2×1 surface, bond strength decreases down the periodic table. To provide an understanding of their chemical origin, these trends are explained by differences in electron affinity, electronegativity, and atomic size or orbital overlap. Besides showing how atomic properties relate to surface reactivity, identification of periodic trends offers a powerful tool for predicting reactivity by extending results from one system to related systems. Developing a broad knowledge of how different organic functional groups react at a semiconductor surface provides a foundation for future applications of organic functionalization. To this end, a number of adsorbates with functional groups that have not been previously studied in detail were investigated at the Ge(100)-2×1 surface including dimethyl sulfoxide, trimethyl phosphite, and dimethyl phosphite. Dimethyl sulfoxide undergoes S--C dissociation to form surface-bound methyl and CH3SO¬ fragments and S=O dissociation which leaves adsorbed atomic oxygen at the surface. Both reaction pathways traverse through an oxygen dative-bonded intermediate, which is favored over S--Ge dative bonding due to the dipolar nature of the sulfoxide functional group. Studies of trimethyl phosphite and dimethyl phosphite represent the first detailed studies of adsorption of phosphorus-based functional groups at the Ge(100)-2×1 surface aside from phosphines. Trimethyl phosphite undergoes C--O dissociation of one of its methoxy groups to form dimethyl germylphosphonate, while dimethyl phosphite undergoes C--O and P--H dissociation forming methyl germyl phosphonate and dimethyl germylphosphonate, respectively. As with dimethyl sulfoxide, multiple dative-bonded intermediates are possible for trimethyl phosphite and dimethyl phosphite, and density functional theory calculations demonstrate that the stability of the dative-bonded intermediates plays a large role in determining the reaction pathway. Recently, much attention in organic functionalization has turned to adsorption of molecules with more than one functional group, which can adsorb while leaving one or more functional group exposed to enable further chemistry or impart specific properties. However, multifunctional molecules add a layer of complexity in achieving selective surface attachment. Two sets of homobifunctional molecules--diisocyanates and cyclohexanediamines--were studied to elucidate how changes in the molecular backbone affect adsorption. Although differing in their attachment chemistry, the results for both sets of adsorbates show that small changes in the backbone geometry or composition can affect not only whether adsorption occurs through one or both functional groups, but also the reaction pathway. Isocyanates primarily react with the Ge(100)-2×1 surface by [2+2] cycloaddition across the C=N bond, and bonding via both functional groups of a diisocyanate is favored for an alkyl versus aryl backbone. Interestingly, in all cases, [2+2] cycloaddition across the C=O bond accounts for a small percentage of products despite such reaction not being observed for monofunctional isocyanates. This result shows that bifunctionality may enable reaction pathways that do not occur for monofunctional molecules. For all cyclohexanediamine isomers, experiments show that a mixture of N dative bonded and N--H dissociated amines are observed, but the ratio of dative bonding to dissociation varies by isomer. Density functional theory calculations are employed to show that the differences in reactivity are driven primarily by small differences in strain of the adsorbate and surface-adsorbate bonds. Although achieving selective attachment of bifunctional molecules remains a challenge, these results demonstrate tools that may be used for such purposes. Overall, this thesis addresses several important topics in semiconductor organic functionalization: periodic trends in reactivity, reaction of new functional groups, the importance and role of dative bonding, and effects of molecular properties on reactivity of bifunctional molecules. Together, these studies continue to advance our understanding of fundamental chemistry at semiconductor surfaces with the ultimate aim of designing organic adsorbates from the ground up for specific applications.

The Nano Micro Interface

Author : Marcel Van de Voorde
ISBN : 9783527679218
Genre : Technology & Engineering
File Size : 73. 16 MB
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Controlling the properties of materials by modifying their composition and by manipulating the arrangement of atoms and molecules is a dream that can be achieved by nanotechnology. As one of the fastest developing and innovative -- as well as well-funded -- fields in science, nanotechnology has already significantly changed the research landscape in chemistry, materials science, and physics, with numerous applications in consumer products, such as sunscreens and water-repellent clothes. It is also thanks to this multidisciplinary field that flat panel displays, highly efficient solar cells, and new biological imaging techniques have become reality. This second, enlarged edition has been fully updated to address the rapid progress made within this field in recent years. Internationally recognized experts provide comprehensive, first-hand information, resulting in an overview of the entire nano-micro world. In so doing, they cover aspects of funding and commercialization, the manufacture and future applications of nanomaterials, the fundamentals of nanostructures leading to macroscale objects as well as the ongoing miniaturization toward the nanoscale domain. Along the way, the authors explain the effects occurring at the nanoscale and the nanotechnological characterization techniques. An additional topic on the role of nanotechnology in energy and mobility covers the challenge of developing materials and devices, such as electrodes and membrane materials for fuel cells and catalysts for sustainable transportation. Also new to this edition are the latest figures for funding, investments, and commercialization prospects, as well as recent research programs and organizations.

Frontiers In Surface And Interface Science

Author : E. Ward Plummer
ISBN : 0444510419
Genre : Medical
File Size : 21. 44 MB
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Any notion that surface science is all about semiconductors and coatings is laid to rest by this encyclopedic publication: Bioengineered interfaces in medicine, interstellar dust, DNA computation, conducting polymers, the surfaces of atomic nuclei - all are brought up to date. Frontiers in Surface and Interface Science - a milestone publication deserving a wide readership. It combines a sweeping expert survey of research today with an educated look into the future. It is a future that embraces surface phenomena on scales from the subatomic to the galactic, as well as traditional topics like semiconductor design, catalysis, and surface processing, modeling and characterization. And, great efforts have been made to express sophisticated ideas in an attractive and accessible way. Nanotechnology, surfaces for DNA computation, polymer-based electronics, soft surfaces, interstellar surface chemistry - all feature in this comprehensive collection.

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