cholesterol regulation of ion channels and receptors

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Cholesterol Regulation Of Ion Channels And Receptors

Author : Irena Levitan
ISBN : 9781118342305
Genre : Science
File Size : 54. 68 MB
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Examines new research on the role of cholesterol in regulating ion channels and receptors and its effect on health Drawing together and analyzing all the latest research findings, this book explores the role of cholesterol in the regulation of ion channels and receptors, including its pathological effects. It is the first book to comprehensively describe the complex mechanisms by which cholesterol regulates two major classes of membrane proteins. Moreover, it sheds new light on how cholesterol affects essential cellular functions such as the contraction of the heart, propagation of nerve impulses, and regulation of blood pressure and kidney function. Written and edited by leading pioneers in the field, Cholesterol Regulation of Ion Channels and Receptors is divided into three parts: Part I, Cholesterol Regulation of Membrane Properties, introduces the heterogeneity of cholesterol distribution in biological membranes and the physical and biological implications of the formation of cholesterol-rich membrane domains. Part II, Cholesterol Regulation of Ion Channels, examines the mechanisms underlying cholesterol sensitivities of ion channels, including the regulation of ion channels by cholesterol as a boundary lipid. Part III, Cholesterol Regulation of Receptors, explores the latest discoveries concerning how cholesterol regulates distinct types of receptors, including G-protein coupled receptors, LDL and scavenger receptors, and innate immune system receptors. Increased levels of cholesterol represent a major health risk. Understanding cholesterol regulation of ion channels and receptors is essential for facilitating the development of new therapeutic strategies to alleviate the impact of pathological cholesterol conditions. With this book as their guide, readers have access to the most current knowledge in the field.

Vascular Ion Channels In Physiology And Disease

Author : Irena Levitan, PhD
ISBN : 9783319296357
Genre : Medical
File Size : 65. 72 MB
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Ion channels are the major class of membrane proteins responsible for rapid and regulated transport of ions across biological membranes and for the generation and propagation of electrical signals in the brain, heart, and skeletal and vascular tissues. Ion channels are also known to play critical roles in regulation of cell proliferation, insulin secretion and intracellular signaling in a variety of cell types. This book focuses on the roles of ion channels in vascular tissues under normal and pathological conditions. Vascular abnormalities are known to underlie a plethora of severe pathological conditions, such as atherosclerosis, systemic and pulmonary hypertension, coronary or cerebral vasospasm, and diabetes. In addition, misregulated angiogenesis is one of the major contributors to the development of tumors. Therefore, it is clearly imperative to obtain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that contribute to vascular disorders. This book will be the first comprehensive assembly of assays to present the studies that have been done during the last decade to elucidate the roles of ion channels in different vascular diseases.

Cholesterol Binding And Cholesterol Transport Proteins

Author : J. Robin Harris
ISBN : 9048186226
Genre : Science
File Size : 36. 62 MB
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Knowledge of cholesterol and its interaction with protein molecules is of fundamental importance in both animal and human biology. This book contains 22 chapters, dealing in depth with structural and functional aspects of the currently known and extremely diverse unrelated families of cholesterol-binding and cholesterol transport proteins. By drawing together this range of topics the Editor has attempted to correlate this broad field of study for the first time. Technical aspects are given considerable emphasis, particularly in relation cholesterol reporter molecules and to the isolation and study of membrane cholesterol- and sphingomyelin-rich "raft" domains. Cell biological, biochemical and clinical topics are included in this book, which serve to emphasize the acknowledged and important benefits to be gained from the study of cholesterol and cholesterol-binding proteins within the biomedical sciences and the involvement of cholesterol in several clinical disorders. It is hoped that by presenting this topic in this integrated manner that an appreciation of the fact that there is much more that needs to be taken into account, studied and understood than the widely discussed "bad and good cholesterol" associated, respectively, with the low- and high-density lipoproteins, LDL and HDL.

Regulation Of The Acetylcholine Receptor Function By Membrane Cholesterol In Xenopus Laevis Oocytes

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ISBN : 0549649662
Genre :
File Size : 54. 59 MB
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The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a ligand-gated ion channel responsible for the transmission of action potentials across cholinergic synapses. The nAChR is a membrane protein and as such lipid-protein interactions are of fundamental importance in the regulation of its function. Alterations in the structure of the nAChR due to mutations may result in modifications in functionality which deviates from that of the wild type (WT) nAChR. In addition to structural alterations, because the nAChR is a membrane-bound protein, alterations in the membrane lipid composition may also lead to modifications in the functionality of the nAChR. Herein, the results of an investigation aimed at providing insight into the mechanisms by which structural alterations in regions of the nAChR which are presumably exposed to the lipid as well as alterations in the cholesterol content of cell membranes affect the functionality of the nAChR. By combining an array of approaches, alterations in channel kinetics, conductance, and expression profiles were studied as potential causes for the increase in macroscopic current which follows membrane cholesterol depletion in oocytes expressing the alphaC418W nAChR, which is the first lipid-exposed nAChR mutation known to produce a congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) in humans. In addition, the functional consequences of increasing the membrane cholesterol content of oocytes expressing the electric ray organ nAChR, the muscle-type nAChR or the neuronal nAChR were assessed to determine the relative tolerance of these subtypes of receptors to increases in cholesterol content which parallel those observed in physiological scenarios related to aging. Interestingly, while the electric ray organ and neuronal nAChRs are relatively intolerant to physiologically relevant increases in cholesterol content, the muscle-type nAChR remain functional upon the same increase in cholesterol content. These results suggest that the muscle-type nAChR may have developed a mechanism to remain functional even at the higher cholesterol concentrations that accompany aging.

The Chemistry And Biology Of Volatiles

Author : Andreas Herrmann
ISBN : 9781119956983
Genre : Science
File Size : 22. 85 MB
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"Coming to a conclusion, this wonderful, informative and very interesting book presents an excellent overview of small volatile organic compounds and their role in our life and environment. Really fascinating is the entirety of scientific disciplines which were addressed by this book." –Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2011 "… this book deserves to be a well-used reference in the library of any laboratory specialising in VOC". –Chemistry World, 2011 Volatile compounds are molecules with a relatively low molecular weight allowing for an efficient evaporation into the air. They are found in many areas of our everyday-life: they are responsible for the communication between species such as plants, insects or mammals; they serve as flavours or fragrances in many food products or perfumed consumer articles; and they play an important role in atmospheric chemistry. This book takes an interdisciplinary approach to volatile molecules. Review-style introductions to the main topics in volatile chemistry and biology are provided by international experts, building into a broad overview of this fascinating field. Topics covered include: The structural variety of volatile compounds Biogeneration of volatiles Synthesis of natural and non-natural volatiles Analysis of volatiles Volatile compounds as semiochemicals in plant-plant or plant-insect interactions Volatiles in pest control Pheromones and the influence of volatiles on mammals Olfaction and human perception Volatiles as fragrances The generation of flavours and food aroma compounds Stabilisation and controlled release of volatiles The impact of volatiles on the environment and the atmosphere

Metabolic Regulation

Author : Keith N. Frayn
ISBN : 9781405147613
Genre : Medical
File Size : 57. 57 MB
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Electrical Diseases Of The Heart

Author : Ihor Gussak
ISBN : 9781447148814
Genre : Medical
File Size : 61. 66 MB
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Electrical Disease of the Heart, 2nd Edition, volume 1, provides a valuable insight to the latest developments in the field of cardiac electrophysiology and clinical electrocardiology. Each chapter includes up-to-date results of studies aimed at providing an understanding of the electrical function of the heart in health and disease, established and evidence-based knowledge of clinical outcomes, areas of controversy, and future trends. This book is highly relevant to a broad audience, ranging from medical and graduate students, to clinicians and scientists.

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