antimicrobial resistance in the environment

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Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment

Author : Patricia L. Keen
ISBN : 9780470905425
Genre : Science
File Size : 44. 62 MB
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Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature?in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance In The Environment

Author : Carlos F. Amábile-Cuevas
ISBN : 9781315679419
Genre : Medical
File Size : 84. 28 MB
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The presence of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes, and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment (i.e., outside of clinical settings, such as antibiotic-treated patients or antibiotic-impregnated locations, such as hospitals) is a cause of growing worldwide concern, as it reveals the extensive impact of antibiotic abuse and other human-related pressures upon microbes. Also, the potential clinical and environmental impact of the presence of antibiotic resistance outside the obvious clinical settings is mostly unknown, but could be unexpectedly large, as resistance in clinical conditions can be seen as a very small "tip of the iceberg". The field of detecting and measuring resistance in the environment has rapidly evolved from mostly anecdotal reports at the end of the 1990s, to a systematic search of organisms and genes in a wide variety of settings, from ancient permafrost to migratory birds. This book will review the available evidence and hypotheses on where this resistance is coming from and for how long it has been there; what are the selective and maintenance pressures involved, and how is resistance spreading; what are the known and possible traits that are being selected and spread along with antibiotic resistance ones; what are the laboratory and in-silico strategies to look into this issue, and their advantages and disadvantages.

Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment

Author : Patricia L. Keen
ISBN : 9781118156230
Genre : Science
File Size : 64. 64 MB
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Examines effects of the environmental distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes on human health and the ecosystem Resistance genes are everywhere in nature—in pathogens, commensals, and environmental microorganisms. This contributed work shows how the environment plays a pivotal role in the development of antimicrobial resistance traits in bacteria and the distribution of resistant microbial species, resistant genetic material, and antibiotic compounds. Readers will discover the impact of the distribution in the environment of antimicrobial resistance genes and antibiotics on both the ecosystem and human and animal health. Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment is divided into four parts: Part I, Sources, including ecological and clinical consequences of antibiotic resistance by environmental microbes Part II, Fate, including strategies to assess and minimize the biological risk of antibiotic resistance in the environment Part III, Antimicrobial Substances and Resistance, including antibiotics in the aquatic environment Part IV, Effects and Risks, including the effect of antimicrobials used for non-human purposes on human health Recognizing the intricate links among overlapping complex systems, this book examines antimicrobial resistance using a comprehensive ecosystem approach. Moreover, the book's multidisciplinary framework applies principles of microbiology, environmental toxicology, and chemistry to assess the human and ecological risks associated with exposure to antibiotics or antibiotic resistance genes that are environmental contaminants. Each chapter has been written by one or more leading researchers in such fields as microbiology, environmental science, ecology, and toxicology. Comprehensive reference lists at the end of all chapters serve as a gateway to the primary research in the field. Presenting and analyzing the latest findings in a field of growing importance to human and environmental health, this text offers readers new insights into the role of the environment in antimicrobial resistance development, the dissemination of antimicrobial resistant genetic elements, and the transport of antibiotic resistance genes and antibiotics.

Antimicrobial Resistance In The Environment

Author : Patricia L. Keen
ISBN : 9781118156216
Genre : Science
File Size : 41. 6 MB
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Assessment Of Antimicrobial Resistance In Marine Environments Of Prince Edward Island Using A Selected Bacterial Group

Author :
ISBN : 0494228288
Genre :
File Size : 63. 73 MB
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the aquatic environment is a common concern associated with urban, industrial and farm effluents. Naturally resistant bacteria have also been reported from environments without anthropogenic influence. Different approaches have been done to evaluate AMR in marine environments mostly assessing the frequency of resistance (FR) of a wide variety of heterotrophic bacteria. The study of a particular group of bacteria and the understanding of the different factors that influence AMR in marine environments would contribute in developing a more accurate method of assessment. The main objective of this thesis was to select a bacterium or a specific group of bacteria able to be used for assessing the level of AMR in different marine environments. Bacterial flora from 18 duplicated samples of sediments and pooled mussels from 3 different marine sites of Prince Edward Island, obtained during 2 seasons, were prescreened in the selective media Thiosulphate Citrate Bile Sucrose (TCBS) containing 50 mug/mL oxytetracycline (OTC) and FRs were obtained. Screened bacteria were identified by means of 3 different methods: conventional, automated (BiologRTM) and analysis of 16S rDNA sequence similarity. Finally, the susceptibility of selected bacteria to 19 antibiotics was assessed using disk diffusion tests and interpreted according to season and the bacterial genus. The FR values significantly varied with the site (P

Pharmaceuticals In The Environment

Author : Klaus Kümmerer
ISBN : 9783662092590
Genre : Science
File Size : 26. 34 MB
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Following the success of the first edition, this pioneering study of pharmaceuticals in the environment has been updated and greatly extended. It includes the status of research on pharmaceuticals in soil, with attention to terrestrial and aquatic environments as well as new substance categories such as tetracylines and chinolones and the latest results concerning contamination of the environment and risk reduction.

Mechanisms Of Antibiotic Resistance

Author : Jun Lin
ISBN : 9782889195268
Genre :
File Size : 80. 27 MB
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Antibiotics represent one of the most successful forms of therapy in medicine. But the efficiency of antibiotics is compromised by the growing number of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Antibiotic resistance, which is implicated in elevated morbidity and mortality rates as well as in the increased treatment costs, is considered to be one of the major global public health threats (www.who.int/drugresistance/en/) and the magnitude of the problem recently prompted a number of international and national bodies to take actions to protect the public (http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/docs/road-map-amr_en.pdf: http://www.who.int/drugresistance/amr_global_action_plan/en/; http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/carb_national_strategy.pdf). Understanding the mechanisms by which bacteria successfully defend themselves against the antibiotic assault represent the main theme of this eBook published as a Research Topic in Frontiers in Microbiology, section of Antimicrobials, Resistance, and Chemotherapy. The articles in the eBook update the reader on various aspects and mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. A better understanding of these mechanisms should facilitate the development of means to potentiate the efficacy and increase the lifespan of antibiotics while minimizing the emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens.

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